Keywords: Uglich Russia
Description: The history of the town numbers practically a thousand years, it is rich in events. And this is the evidence of it.The first mention of this town was in 1148 year in common russian chronicles. In
The history of the town numbers practically a thousand years, it is rich in events. And this is the evidence of it.The first mention of this town was in 1148 year in common russian chronicles. In XIII cent. this town became a capital not large kingdom. About 1326 year Uglich kingdom became a part of Moscow kingdom. In XV cent. the town – was one of the important political, economical and cultural centres of Russia State. At this place was coined money, books were rewritten there.
With Uglich is connected a tragic story of XVI century - the death of tsarevitch Dmitry, son of Ivan the Terrible, reproduced in drama of A.S. Pushkin «Boris Godunov». Dmitry was last heir of dynasty of Rurikovich and dead under mysterious conditions. Dmitry was found dead at his room. This event had a tragic and fatal meaning for Russia. At this time Russia was suffered by civil wars, intervention and country's destruction.
There are the buildings – witnesses of that cruel event. It is an ensemble of the Kremlin. The Kremlin is towered on the steep bank of Volga, in place of emptying of the Kamenniy brook and the Shchelkovka river. The large construction of the Kremlin was encircled with a height wall with nine solid and two open towers, to which roads go. The Kremlin was built during the reign of Andrew the Big, in 1480-1490. By his order the site of ancient settlement, located in this place formerly (in 11 century), was fully rebuilt. As a result the wooden walls were changed were replaced by stone wall, the territory of the Kremlin, on which at the same time the Spaso-Preobrazhensky cathedral was built, arose. Unfortunately, that Kremlin was fully destroyed during the Polish war. Only one construction escaped destruction – the Chamber of appanage princes, built in 15 century. People call them “the palace of tsarevitch Dimitriy”. The building consists of three floors. On the third floor the large Throne-room with square of 80 sq km is located. The first floor, semi-basement like the second one, is divided into several apartments. Probably in former times they formed living and secondary rooms. The walls of the building are richly decorated with ornamental pattern by analogy with Novgorod Kremlin. This says about the fact that, most likely, the local building was built by Novgorod architectures. One of the first in Russia Museum of History and Arts, the Museum of Antiquity was opened here in 1892. The last one works till now. That bloody event, about which the history of the town narrates, happened in the garden near this building. In this place in 17 century the church of tsarevitch Dmitriy “on blood” was built. It was coloured in red – the symbol of the spill blood, but in combination with white ornamental patterns and blue cupolas, on which golden stars shine, the church metaphorically embodies hope of resurrection and supreme forgiveness. The temple was built in patterned style by Moscow masters and consists of the church, belfry and refectory.
The original exterior of the church hasn’t been kept to our time, but the interior has been kept in its primeval condition. The murals were made by Sapozhnikov’s artel. The picture of killing tsarevitch Dimitriy, it occupies the whole western part of the temple, has become the central subject.
The Spaso-Preobrazhensky cathedral. standing near, was rebuilt several times. As a result the final variant ( it concerns mostly the inner decoration and fresco) was made by patterns of later Renaissance and baroque. 55 compositions, which are situated in four tiers of the temple, are the remarkable peculiarity of this building. Here the replica of Rafael’s picture – it is the main temple subject- “Transfiguration”, on which the scene of miraculous healing of a possessed man is represented, is kept. The belfry, erected not far (1730), has become the symbol of Uglich. 30-meter construction remained the highest building of the town.
Another temple – one-domed Bogoyavlensky cathedral. ornamented with T. Medvedev’s artel, was built in Kremlin in 1830.
The way from the Kremlin leads tourists to the walls of the present Voskresensky monastery. It is famous since 14 century, during this time the walls collapsed, but three buildings – the cathedral, belfry and refectory with the church of the Smolenskaya Blessed Virgin – escaped destruction. All these erections were placed on one axis – from the north to the south, in the center of which the cathedral of Christ’s Resurrection is located. It is not high and decorated with green tiles with pictures of animals, birds and scenes of siege of the monastery. The first floor served original gates in the monastery. On the second and the last floor the gallery is situated, and on the third floor – the church. Not large belfry is also placed in the one-domed church of icon of the Smolenskaya Blessed Virgin. Scientists noted long ago that the erections of the Voskresensky monastery resemble the erections of Rostov Kremlin, built later. It is necessary to note, that these two architectural complexes were built by order of Ion Sisoevich, who became afterwards metropolitan of Rostov. This fact, perhaps, told on almost complete identity of two cloisters.
The smart church of Birth of Ioan Predtecha is located behind the walls of the Uglichsky monastery. Another local legendwhich narrates about the death of an infant is connected with it. According to the legend in former times in Uglich a rich Posad man Nikifor Chepolosov lived. He had son Ivan of 6 years old. Once in spring the boy didn’t return home after lessons with a local teacher. As it turned out, he was killed by a Rudak, steward of Chepolasov. The reason, induced Rudak to act in this way, continued to be a deep dark secret. Chepolasov decided to erect a temple in memory of his perished son. The church looks quite smart, with a bent of colored tile, a smart porch. It is considered to be the most beautiful erection in Uglich.
If going farther in direction of streets of the 9th January and of the 1st of May, one can see wonderful residential constructions. Two of them belong to the Odintsovs and Kalashnikovs. It is interesting that all merchant buildings don’t resemble each other, although they were built by standard design. As a rule, with time staircases, attics were built to them; roofs were lifted in order snow not to lie too long. In Rostovskaya street the Bogoyavlensky monastery. founded in 14 century by the Great Russian princess Evdokiya, Dmitriy Donskoy’s wife, was kept. This cloister is interesting by the five-domed cathedral of Theophany, built in Russian-Byzantine style, and the Fedorovskaya church, erected in 1810 by canons of classicism. With church from all four sides semicircular premises border; its facades are decorated with two-column porticoes. Here the five-domed church of Smolenskaya icon of the Blessed Virgin, which has a spacious refectory chamber, is located. It had been built for a year, beginning with 1689.
The most ancient monastery of Uglich is located in Sharkova street. It was called Alekseevsky. and now it is a property of the woman’s cloister. It was founded by coenobite Adrian in 1371 on the instructions of Moscow metropolitan Alexis. Being the northern advanced post of Uglich, the monastery became a participant of the Great Distemper. At that time all monastery erections were burnt, destroyed, 500 monks were killed, other were buried alive. In memory of this event on the territory of the monastery the church of Assumption of the Mother of God was erected. Almost at once it got another name – Divnaya (wonderful) which is concerned with its unusual beauty. It is one of the first constructions, three cupolas have hipped tops.
A place with name “village Grigorjevskoe” keeps another legend. It is considered that it was presented noble P.N. Grigorjev by empress Ekaterina II. She did it for a service: Grigorjev supposedly owned himself father of illegitimate daughter of the tsarina. The modern estate was built at the end of 18 century and it is a monument of classicism. Unfortunately, all palace interiors were not kept. Now in the estate there is a library, and other premises were allotted to citizens for habitation.
Another monastery is located in 12 km from Uglich. It is called Nicolo-Uleiminskiy. It is the only cloister of Uglich, kept to our time in the primeval air. It was founded in 1460, and its stone walls arose in 17 century. The complex of the monastery consists of eight erections: the Nicolsky cathedral, Vvedenskaya church with a refectory, the Troitskaya church, Sacred and Water gates, houses of the door-keeper and the belfry. A very important historical event is connected with the monastery. So, in 1608 it was attacked by army of Polish conqueror Jan Sapega. When the foreigners entered the cloister by force, defenders of the monastery found shelter in the main cathedral. Then Poles decided to sap the foundation of the erection in order to get in. As a result the walls of the temple collapsed and buried the monks, being there.
The state historic – architectural art museum of Uglich – is one of the ancient and provincial museums of Russia.
The watch factory museum «Chaika» tells us about of the largest in soviet time factory of the town.
At the museum of historic – musical exposition «the Sounds of Uglich»(the private museum of Kulagin) one can know about old art of bell ringer.
By the way, academician A. Oparin made the unique cultures of microorganisms, which continues to be used in local works while producing tasteful cheeses – Uglichsky, Russian, Kostromskoi, Poshehonsky and others.
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