Keywords: Ramshar Iran
Description: Ramsar (Persian. رامسر , also Romanized as Rāmsar and Rānsar ; formerly, Sakht Sar ) [ 1 ] is a city in and the capital of Ramsar County. Mazandaran Province. Iran. At the 2012 census, its
Ramsar (Persian. رامسر , also Romanized as Rāmsar and Rānsar ; formerly, Sakht Sar ) [ 1 ] is a city in and the capital of Ramsar County. Mazandaran Province. Iran. At the 2012 census, its population was 33,018, in 9,421 families. [ 2 ]
Ramsar lies on the coast of the Caspian Sea. It was also known as Sakhtsar in the past. Natives of Ramsar speak the Gilaki language which is a member of Northwest-Iranian languages and a dialect of Persian along with Mazandarani. The town is known for having some of the highest levels of natural background radiation on Earth.
Ramsar's Talesh Mahalleh district is the most radioactive inhabited area known in the world, due to nearby hot springs and building materials originating from them. [ 8 ] A combined population of 2000 residents from this district and other high radiation neighbourhoods receive an average radiation dose of 10 mGy per year, ten times more than the ICRP recommended limit for exposure to the public from artificial sources. [ 9 ] Record levels were found in a house where the effective radiation dose due to external radiation was 131 mSv /a, and the committed dose from radon was 72 mSv/a. [ 10 ] This unique case is over 80 times higher than the world average background radiation .
The prevailing model of radiation-induced cancer posits that the risk rises linearly with dose at a rate of 5% per Sv. If this linear no-threshold model is correct, it should be possible to observe an increased incidence of cancer in Ramsar through careful long-term studies currently underway. [ 9 ] Early anecdotal evidence from local doctors and preliminary cytogenetic studies suggested that there may be no such harmful effect, and possibly even a radioadaptive effect. [ 11 ] More recent epidemiological data show a slightly reduced lung cancer rate [ 12 ] and non-significantly elevated morbidity, but the small size of the population (only 1800 inhabitants in the high-background areas) will require a longer monitoring period to draw definitive conclusions. [ 13 ] Furthermore, there are questions regarding possible non-cancer effects of the radiation background. An Iranian study has shown that people in the area have a significantly higher expression of CD69 gene and also a higher incidence of stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations. [ 14 ] Chromosomal aberrations have been found in other studies [ 15 ] and a possible elevation of female infertility has been reported. [ 16 ]
Radiation hormesis was not observed in a study that also recommended that Ramsar does not provide justification to relax existing regulatory dose limits. [ 17 ] Pending further study, the potential health risks have moved scientists to call for relocation of the residents and regulatory control of new construction. [ 18 ] [ 19 ]
The radioactivity is due to the local geology. Underground water dissolves radium in uraniferous igneous rock and carries it to the surface through at least nine known hot springs. [ 11 ] These are used as spas by locals and tourists. Some of the radium precipitates into travertine. a form of limestone, and the rest diffuses into the soil, where it is absorbed by crops and mixes with drinking water. Residents have unknowingly used the radioactive limestone as a building material for their homes. The stone irradiates the inhabitants and generates radon gas which is usually seen to promote lung cancer. Crops contribute 72 µSv/yr to a critical group of 50 residents. [ 20 ]
Photogallery Ramshar Iran:
Kaldu.org - St. Paul Assyrian-Chaldean Catholic Church
Iran 7000 Group Website
Iran 7000 Group Website
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