Kaluga Russia



Keywords: Kaluga Russia
Description: Kaluga is a city located in the central part of the European Russia, the capital of Kaluga oblast. The city stands on the banks of the Oka River, about 190 km southwest of Moscow. It is a railway

Kaluga is a city located in the central part of the European Russia, the capital of Kaluga oblast. The city stands on the banks of the Oka River, about 190 km southwest of Moscow. It is a railway station on the Moscow-Kiev line.

The foundation date of Kaluga is not known, somewhere in the first part of the 14th century. The first written mentioning of Kaluga occurred in 1371. It was a small fortress of the Moscow state.

In the second half of the 17th century, the production of metal began to develop in Kaluga. The town had one of the first ironworks in Russia. In 1776, the population of Kaluga was about 17 thousand people. By the end of the 18th century, the town was famous for artistic crafts made of wood, embroidery and lace.

Kaluga played an important role in the Russian-French War of 1812. It became a major rear base of Russian troops. There is a road called “Kaluga road”. Napoleon planned to escape the Moscow trap by this road in 1812. Unfortunately for him, the Russian General Kutuzov forced the army of France to choose another (Smolensk) road, because it was completely devastated by the French previously on their way to Moscow.

From the middle of the 19th century, the town experienced economic decline caused mainly by two factors: the silting up of the Oka River and the development of rail transport.

By the end of the 19th century, Kaluga turned into a quiet provincial town, which was used by the authorities as a place of exile for senior prisoners:

  • Shahin Giray, the last Crimean Khan (from 1786);
  • Aryngazy Abulgazi, the Kazakh Khan (in 1823-1833);
  • Tecla Iraklievna with her sons, the daughter of the Georgian king, exiled for participation in noble conspiracy of 1832;
  • Shamil, the third Imam of Chechnya and Dagestan (in 1859-1868), surrendered to the authorities after the defeat in the Caucasian War.

In Soviet times, it became a major industrial center. By the mid-20th century, the city’s population was about 100 thousand people. Up to 90% of the industrial plants worked for the defense industry.

Present day Kaluga is a major transport hub, one of the scientific, cultural, economic and spiritual center of the Central Federal District of Russia with developed mechanical engineering and the automotive industry. Kaluga is one of the historic centers of Russia with a lot of monuments.




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